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高考英语口试辅导材料(三)
2010-12-15 10:59:45 星期三            来源: 本站原创

第三节 英语语调

 

语调通常是指说话时声音的升和降。英语语调的基本单位是语调群,而语调中最主要的成分是声调。英语语调包括三个部分:音高、音高范围、音高的变化。

一、语调群的构成

一个完整的语调群含有四个组成部分:调头前部、调头、调核、调尾。

You must 'light a 'fire to 'warm the `drawing-room.

Will you 'have 'time to 'type 9this for me?

二、调核的类型

三种主要类型:降调、升调、降升调。

1、降调:表示完整、确定。

I 'don't 'think she `knows.

'Peter's 'brother has 'got a `job.

He is 'busy `today.

2、升调:表示不确定、不完整或礼貌。升调一般用于一般疑问句、祈使句(表示委婉、客气)、陈述句(含有感情色彩时,如不肯定、疑问、安慰、不耐烦等)。

'May I 'use your 9pen?

Have you 'ever 'been in an 9plane?

3、升降调:结合降调的断言、确定与升调的不完整,表示对比、含蓄、不同意、反驳或警告等。

It's 'very ˇuseful.

I'd 'like some ˇtea.

三、语调的应用

1、降调

1) 普通陈述句

She's a 'very 'good `actress.

He was 'here a 'moment a`go.

'This is `Marian.  She's from A`merica.

2) 特殊疑问句

'What did you 'think of the `show?

'Whose `coat is that?

'How many 'times have you `been there?

'Which is your 'favourite `subject?

'Who 'gave him the `book?

3) 表示命令的祈使句

'Be `quiet.

'Just a `minute.

'Leave the 'door `open.

4) 感叹句

(')What a 'beautiful `day!

How `wonderful it must 7be to be 7able to af7ford such 7long 7holidays!

How `nice of him!

(')What a `shame!

5) 选择疑问句的最后选择部分

'Is she 9American or `British?

'Which is `yours the 9blue one or the `red one?

'How shall we `go?  By 9busby 9train or by `plane?

Was it 9on the table or `under it?

6) 反意疑问句的前一部分

He was `there9wasn't he?

You 'didn't `go9did you?

You 'came this `morning9didn't you?

7) 修辞疑问句或反问句

Are you `satisfied? (You 'ought to `be!)

Do you under`stand it now?

Wellcan I `have the newspaper?

8) 作答语的简短问句

(--'John's on `holiday.)  --`Is he?

(--I 'went to the 'theatre 'last `night.)  --`Did you?

2、升调

1) 表示怀疑和不肯定的一般疑问句

Are you 'quite 9sure?

Did you 'notice 'anything 9wrong with it?

Has my 'book been 9found?

'Have you 'met my 'sister be9fore?

2) 陈述疑问句

You 9like it?

He's 'definitely 9going?

I must ar'rive there be'fore 9seven?

3) 选择疑问句前面的选择部分

Was he from 9England or from `France?

Do you 'study 9French or 9German or `Russian?

'Was it 9red or 9blue or `green?

4) 反义疑问句的附加问句

You can `swim9can't you?

You 'didn't 'see him9did you?

'One of Jack's 'friends is a 9bus driver9isn't he?

*反意疑问句的附加问句表示疑问时用升调,表示确信、对方不会反驳时用降调。

It's a 'fine `day`isn't it?

I was `right`wasn't I?

'That was most un `fair`wasn't it?

We had a 'very good `time`didn't we?

5) 请对方重复的疑问句

(--'Pass me the `newspaper.)  --9What did you say?

(--'Jane 'told me to `do it.)  --9Who told you to do it?

(--'John is 'fifty-`two.)  --9What? 9How old did you say he was?

6) 语句未完的短语或列举

I 'found the 9key / and 'opened the `door.

He 'sat 'down by my 9side/ 'took 'out a 'small piece of 'boiled 9ox-hide /and `gave it to me.

The 'Trojans 'went up the 9wall / and 9found / that the 'Greek 'camp was 'really    de`serted.

(--'What 'sports do you `like?)  --I 7like 9football9basketball9swimming and `skating.

(--'Count from 'one to `six.)  --9One9two9three9four9five`six.

7) 句首的状语

A 'moment 9later/ 'Newton came `in.

'On the 9dining-table / there was a 'dish with a `cover on it.

'When I ar9rived/ there was 'nobody at `home.

'While we're 9waiting/ 'let's 'go and 'have something to `eat.

8) 有礼貌的请求

'Move a9longplease.

'Do come a9gain.

'Take a 9seat .

9) 祈使句后的附加问句

'Come over 5here a `minute/ 9will you?

'Hold `this for me/ 9would you?

'Let's 'go for a `walk/ 9shall we?

10) 表示安慰和鼓励的陈述句

I 'won't 'drive 'too 9fast (so 'don't 9worry).

(--Are you 'ready to 9go?)  --I'll be 'ready in a 9minute.

(--It's 'going to be `painful/ 9isn't it?)  --`NoI 'shan't 9hurt you.

11) 语气显得友好和关切的特殊疑问句

'When did you 'get back from 9holiday?

'What is your 9name?

'What's the 9matter?

'What can I 9do for you?

12) 在句中意义不大重要的、句末位置的状语

I 'don't 'go `that way 9usually.

--'Why bring an um`brella?  --It was `raining / when I 9left home.

I should 'like to 9read it/ when you've 9finished with it.

You'll be `late/ if you don't 9hurry up.

*如果这些状语在句中意义重要,则用降调。

(--'When does she `need it?)  --She 'wants it this `Saturday.

(--'How long may I `keep it?)  --'Keep it as 'long as you `like.

3、降升调

1) 含有对比意思的陈述句

On ˇweekdays I `work but on ˇSundays I `don't.

ˇHe doesn't want it.  But his ˇbrother may.

In ˇmy opinion / he's 'perfectly `right.

2) 表示隐含意思的陈述句

--I'd 'like to have a `try.  --You 'ought to ˇtry   ( 'even if you are 'not 'sure to suc`ceed.)

--'Can you play 9chess?  --ˇOnce I could.  (But I 'haven't 'played for 9ages.)

--Then 'do we 'all a9gree to the plan?  --ˇI have nothing against it.  (But I 'don't know `what others might 9think.)

3) 表示不同意、反驳以至纠正的陈述句

--I 'can't `do it.  --You ˇcan.

--You 'didn't at'tend the `meeting yesterday.  --I ˇdid.

--She ar7rived `today.   --ˇSaturday.

4) 告诫

Your ˇchair's slipping.

You'll 'miss your ˇtrain.

`Careful with that ˇglass!  (You'll `drop it.)

5) 表示语句未完部分(比用低升调更有力、更生动)

At ˇpresent/ we must 'hear and 'speak more `English.

She 'took the ˇcar / and 'drove to `London.

'When you ˇcan/ 'write to him a`gain.

If 'I were ˇyou/ I'd 'wait and 'see what `happens.

6) 表示道歉

--Is 'Jane 9in?  --I'm ˇsorrybut she's `out.

--We've 'just had a 'group dis`cussion.  --I'm ˇsorry I was absent.

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